Publication YXY 2012
E. de Jong, T. Vijlbrief, R. Hijkoop, G.-J. M. Gruter, J. C. van der Waal, Biomass Bioenergy 2012, 36, 151
A new process to produce YXY fuel components from carbohydrates is under development by Avantium. YXY fuel components are furan-based mono- and diethers with good fuel blending properties and a relatively high energy d. In this paper the engine performance of a wide range of Diesel-YXY mixts. was tested using an ESC test with a 6 cylinder PACCAR heavy duty engine. At all conditions tested (different blendings and different steps in the ESC cycle) no difference in the engine operation was obsd. Ethoxymethyl THF Ether (ETE) gave the best results with substantial redns. in particulate matter (%) and smoke (%) at up to 30% (vol./vol.) blending ratios while NOx and max. cylinder pressure were only marginally changed. Furfuryl Et Ether (FEE) also caused substantial redns. of soot however, at the cost of higher NOx formation and a stronger oscillating effect in the max cylinder pressure.
Applying a 1:1 mixt. of the ETE/FEE YXY mols. quenched the effect seen with FEE alone indicating the strength of producing mixts. of different YXY mols. as the ideal fuel component. Further research will address the elastomer compatibility of the different YXY mols. and if higher alcs. (e.g. n-butanol, t-butanol) for the etherification will make the fuels even better fitting the Diesel fuel range (improved energy content, higher flashpoint, b.p.).